Abhidharmakosha Vasubandhu Chapter 1
CHAPTER ONE – THE DHĀTUS
yaḥ sarvathāsarvahatāndhakāraḥ saṁsārapaṅkājjagadujjahāra|
tasmai namaskṛtya yathārthaśāstre śāstraṁ pravakṣyāmyabhidharmakośam||1||
He has, in an absolute manner, destroyed all blindness; He has drawn out the world from the mire of transmigration: I render homage to Him, to this teacher of truth, before composing the treatise called the Abhidharmakośa.
H: Having, in every way, destroyed the darkness everywhere, he rescued the world from the mire of samsara. Bowing to him, the genuine teacher, i shall propound the text, the abhidharmakosa.
prajñā'malā sānucarā'bhidharmaḥ tatprāptaye yāpi ca yacca śāstram|
tasyārthato'smin samanupraveśāt sa cā śrayo'syetyabhidharmakośam||2|
Abhidharma is pure prajñā with its following. It is also prajñā, and the Treatise which brings about the obtaining of pure prajñā. The present work is called the Abhidharmakośa because the Abhidharma enters into it through its meaning; or because the Abhidharma constitutes its foundation.
H: Abhidharma is flawless understanding, with its following. Also, it is both that [understanding] and that text, which are conducive to attaining this [flawless understanding]. Because of the complete entry, essentially, of that [abhidharma corpus] into this [text], or [because] that is the basis of this: thus [this is] the abhidharmakosa.
dharmāṇāṁ pravicayamantareṇa nāsti kleśānāṁ yata upaśāntaye'bhyupāyaḥ|
kleśaiśca bhramati bhavārṇave'tra lokastaddhetorata uditaḥ kilaiṣa śāstrā||3|
Apart from the discernment of the dharmas, there is no means to extinguish the defilements, and it is by reason of the defilements that the world wanders in the ocean of existence. So it is with a view to this discernment that the Abhidharma has been, they say, spoken [by the Master].
H: Since, apart from the discernment of dharmas, there is no approach for pacifying defilements, and it is because of defilements that the world wanders in this ocean of becoming: hence, for that reason, was this [abhidharma] uttered by the teacher, so they say.
sāsravā'nāsravā dharmāḥ saṁskṛtā mārgavarjitāḥ|
sāsravāḥ āsravāsteṣu yasmātsamanuśerate||4||
The dharmas are impure, “in a relationship with the defilements”, or pure, “with no relationship to the defilements”. Conditioned dharmas, with the exception of the Path, are impure. They are impure because the defilements adhere to them.
H: Dharmas are contaminated and uncontaminated. The contaminated [dharmas] are the conditioned [dharmas] except for the path: since the contaminants adhere to those.
anāsravā mārgasatyaṁ trividhaṁ cāpyasaṁskṛtam|
ākāśaṁ dvau nirodhau ca tatrākāśamanāvṛtiḥ||5||
The undefiled truth of the Path and the three unconditioned things are pure. Space and the two types of extinctions. Space is “that which does not hinder.”
H: The uncontaminated [dharmas] are the truth of the path, and also the three types of unconditioned [dharma]: space and two [types of] cessation. Among those, space is non-obstruction.
pratisaṁkhyānirodho yo visaṁyogaḥ pṛthak pṛthak|
Pratisaṃkhyānirodha is disjunction. Each [disjunction occurs] separately. A different type of extinction, which consists of the absolute hindering of arising, is called apratisaṃkhyānirodha.
H: The cessation through realization is that which is a disconnection, one by one. Another cessation, not through realization, is the total prevention of arising.
te punaḥ saṁskṛtā dharmā rūpādiskandhapañcakam|
sa evādhvā kathāvastu saniḥsārāḥ savastukāḥ||7||
Conditioned things are the fivefold skandhas, matter, etc. Conditioned things are the paths; they are the foundations of discourse; they are “possessed of leaving”; they are “possessed of causes”.
H: Those conditioned dharmas, on the other hand, are the set of five aggregates: form and so on. Those same [conditioned dharmas] are (1) temporal, (2) grounds of discourse, (3) liable to expire, and (4) grounded [in causes].
ye sāsravā upādānaskandhāste saraṇā api|
duḥkhaṁ samudayo loko dṛṣṭisthānaṁ bhavaśca te||8||
When they are impure, they are upānānaskandhas. They are called “of battle”. They are also suffering, arising, the world, the locus of false opinions, existence.
H: The contaminated ones are the appropriative aggregates: [they are] also harmful. Those [contaminated dharmas] are: suffering, its origin, the world, the station of views, and becoming.
rūpaṁ pañcendriyāṇyarthāḥ pañcāvijñaptireva ca|
Rūpa, or matter, is the five sense organs, five objects, and avijñapti. The points of support of the consciousness of these things, namely the subtle material elements, are the five organs, the organ of sight, etc.
H: Form is: five organs, five objects, and the unmanifest as well. The bases for the cognition of these [objects] are the “material-transparencies” which are [the organs of] the eye and so on.
rūpaṁ dvidhā viṁśatidhā śabdastvaṣṭavidhaḥ rasaḥ|
ṣoḍhā caturvidho gandhaḥ spṛśyamekādaśātmakam||10|
Visible matter is twofold. Or twentyfold. Sound is eightfold. Taste is of six types. Odor is fourfold. The tangible is of eleven types.
H: [visible] form is of two sorts, of twenty sorts. Sound, however, is of eight types. Flavor is of six types. There are four kinds of odor. The tangible has eleven natures.
vikṣiptācittakasyāpi yo'nubandhaḥ śubhāśubhaḥ|
mahābhūtānyupādāya sa hyavijñaptirucyate||11||
There is a serial continuity also in a person whose mind is distracted, or who is without mind, pure or impure, in dependence on the primary elements: this is called the avijñapti.
H: Even for one whose thought has shifted or is nonexistent, there is a pure or impure connecting link which has appropriated the great elements. That, now, is called “the unmanifest” [form].
The primary elements are the elementary substance “earth”, and the elementary substances “water”, “fire” and “wind”. They are proven to exist by the actions of support, etc. They are solidity, humidity, heat and motion.
H: The elements are the earth component and the components of water, fire, and air. They are generally recognized in the actions of supporting and so on. [they are] solidity, moisture, heat, and mobility.
pṛthivī varṇasaṁsthānamucyate lokasaṁjñayā|
āpastejaśca vāyustu dhātureva tathāpi ca||13||
In common usage, what is designated by the word “earth” is color and shape. The same for water and fire. Wind is either the wind element, Or else [color and shape].
H: As a popular conception, “earth” signifies [some] color and shape; so [do] “water and “fire.” “air,” however, is the component itself, and is also like those [other three].
indriyārthāsta eveṣṭā daśāyatanadhātavaḥ|
vedanā'nubhavaḥ saṁjñā nimittodgrahaṇātmikā||14||
These same organs and objects are regarded as ten āyatanas, ten dhātus. Sensation is painful impression, etc. Ideas consist of the grasping of characteristics.
H: Those same organs and objects are accepted as ten [of the] spheres and components. Feeling is affect. An idea is, by nature, the apprehension of a mark.
caturbhyo'nye tu saṁskāraskandhaḥ ete punastrayaḥ|
Saṁskāraskandha are the saṁskāras different from the other four skandhas. These three skandhas, with avijñapti and unconditioned things, are the dharmāyatana, the dharmadhātu.
H: The aggregate of dispositions, however, is those [dispositions] other than the four [remaining aggregates]. Along with the unmanifest [form] and the [three] unconditioned [dharmas], are designated as the sphere and component of dharmas.
vijñānaṁ prativijñaptiḥ mana āyatanaṁ ca tat|
dhātavaḥ sapta ca matāḥ ṣaḍ vijñānānyatho mahaḥ||16||
Consciousness is the impression relative to each object. It is the mental organ. It is seven dhātus. The six consciousnesses and the manas.
H: Cognition is a specific manifestation and it is the mind-sphere, and is it seven mental components: six cognitions and also the mind.
ṣaṇṇāmanantarātītaṁ vijñānaṁ yaddhi tanmanaḥ|
ṣaṣṭhāśrayaprasiddhayarthaṁ dhatavo'ṣṭādaśa smṛtāḥ||17||
Of these six consciousnesses, the one which continually passes away, is the manas. One counts eighteen dhātus with a view to assigning a point of support to the sixth consciousness.
H: With respect to the six [groups of cognition], the mind is that cognition which is immediately past. The components are considered to be eighteen, in order to provide a basis for the sixth [cognition].
sarvasaṁgraha ekena skandhenāyatanena ca |
dhātunā ca svabhāvena parabhāvaviyogataḥ||18||
All the dharmas are included in one skandha, one āyatana, and one dhātu. A dharma is included in its own nature. For it is distinct from the nature of others.
H: Everything is included in one aggregate, [one] sphere, and [one] component: [included] by what has the same nature, since exclusion is from that which has a different nature.
dvitve'pi cakṣurādīnāṁ śobhārtha tu dvayobhdavaḥ||19|
The organs of sight, of hearing, and of smell, although twofold, form only, in pairs, one dhātu, for their nature, their sphere of activity, and their consciousness are common. It is for beauty’s sake that they are twofold.
H: Even though there are two eyes, etc., they constitute a single component, since they are the same in regard to kind, range, and cognition. They occur in pairs, however, for the sake of beauty.
Skandha signifies “heap”, āyatana signifies “gate of entry”, “gate of arising”, and dhātu signifies “lineage”. The teachings of the skandhas, etc., because error, faculty, joy are threefold.
H: “aggregate,” “sphere,” and “component” mean: “heap,” “access-door,” and “source.” the delusions, organs, and predilections have a [triple] nature, therefore there are the three instructions: according to aggregates and so on.
caittebhyo vedanāsaṁjñe pṛthakskandhau niveśitau||21||
The two mental states, sensation and ideas, are defined as distinct skandhas because they are the causes of the roots of dispute, because they are the causes of transmigration, and also by reason of the causes which justify the order of skandhas.
H: Because of being causes for the roots of dispute and for samsara, and because of order: feeling and idea are assigned two aggregates separate from [other] mental dharmas.
skandheṣva saṁskṛtaṁ noktamarthāyogāt kramaḥ punaḥ|
Unconditioned things are not named with respect to the skandhas, because they do not correspond to the concept. The order of the skandhas is justified by their grossness, their defilement, the characteristic of the jug, etc., and also from the point of view of their spheres of influence.
H: The “unconditioned” is not mentioned among the aggregates, because the meaning is unsuitable. The order [of the aggregates], again, is according to grossness, defilement, and the meaning of “bowl,” etc.--or by realm.
prāk pañca vārttamānārthyāt bhautikārthyāccatuṣṭayam|
dūrāśutaravṛttyā'nyat yathāsthānaṁ kramo'thavā||23||
The first five are the first because their object is present. The first four are the first because their object is solely derived or secondary matter. These four are arranged according to the range and speed of their activity. Or rather the organs are arranged according to their position.
H: Five [organs] are prior, because their objects are in the present. Four [of these five] are so, because their objects are derivative [matter]. The rest are [in sequence] according to their functioning at a greater distance or more rapidly. Or else, the order is according to position.
ekamāyatanaṁ rūpamekaṁ dharmākhyamucyate||24||
A single āyatana is called rūpa-āyatana with a view to distinguishing it from the others, and by reason of its excellence. A single āyatana is called dharma-āyatana with a view to distinguishing it from the others, and because it includes many of the dharmas as well as the best dharma.
H: In order to make a distinction, from predominance, and because of including many dharmas and their summit: one form sphere is spoken of, one designated as “dharma.”
dharmaskandhasahasrāṇi yānyaśītiṁ jagau muniḥ|
tāni vāṅnāma vetyeṣāṁ rūpasaṁskārasaṁgrahaḥ||25||
The eighty thousand dharmaskandhas that the Muni promulgated, depending on whether one regards them as “voice” or as “name”, are included within the rūpaskandha or the saṃskāraskandha.
H: The eighty thousand dharma aggregates which the sage proclaimed, being either speech or name, are included in [the aggregates of] form or disposition.
śāstrapramāṇā ityeke skandhādīnāṁ kathaikaśaḥ|
According to some, a dharmaskandha is of the dimension of the Treatise. The exposition of the skandhas, etc., constitutes so many dharmaskandhas. In fact, each dharmaskandha has been preached in order to heal a certain category of believer.
H: Some say its measure is that of the text. [or that] it is the discourse on aggregates and so on, one by one. But a dharma aggregate is recounted as the antidote to a behavior.
tathā'nye'pi yathāyogaṁ skandhāyatanadhātavaḥ|
pratipādyā yathokteṣu saṁpradhārya svalakṣaṇam||27||
In this same way the other skandhas, āyatanas and dhātus should be suitably arranged within the skandhas, āyatanas and dhātus as described above, by taking into account the characteristics that have been attributed to them.
H: So, also, other “aggregates,” “spheres,” and “components” should be assigned, as appropriate, to those [five aggregates, etc.] as discussed [above], after one has determined their specific characteristics.
chidramākāśadhātvākhyam ālokatamasī kila|
vijñānadhāturvijñānaṁ sāsravaṁ janmaniśrayāḥ||28||
Cavities are called the space element; it is, one says, light and darkness. The consciousness element is an impure consciousness. The support of arising.
H: A cavity is called the space component. [it is] glow and darkness, so they say. The cognition-component is the contaminated cognition. [these are] the support of a birth.
sanidarśana eko'tra rūpaṁ sapratighā daśa|
rūpiṇaḥ avyākṛtā aṣṭau ta evārūpaśabdakāḥ||29||
Only rūpadhātu is visible. The ten dhātus which are exclusively material are capable of being struck. Eight dhātus are morally neutral. Minus visible matter and sound.
H: Among those [eighteen components] one [component] is visible, [namely:] form. The ten material [components] possess “impact.” eight [components are unspecified [only]: those same [ten], without form and sound.
tridhā'nye kāmadhātvāptāḥ sarve rūpe caturdaśa|
The others are of three types. All exist in Kāmadhātu. Fourteen exist in Rūpadhātu. With the exception of odor, taste, the consciousness of odor, and the consciousness of taste.
H: The others are of [all] three types. All [eighteen] apply in the desire realm. Fourteen in that of form: without odor, flavor, olfactory cognition, and gustatory cognition.
sāsravānāsravā ete trayaḥ śeṣāstu sāsravāḥ||31||
In Ārūpyādhātu, there is mental organ, an object of the mental consciousness, and the mental consciousness. The three dhātus which have just been named can be pure or impure. The others are impure.
H: The components which apply in the formless [realm] are mind, dharmas, and mental cognition. These three [can be either] contaminated or uncontaminated. The rest, however, are contaminated [only].
savitarkavicārā hi pañca vijñānadhātavaḥ|
antyāstrayastriprakārāḥ śeṣā ubhayavarjitāḥ||32||
Five consciousnesses always include vitarka and vicāra. The last three dhātus are of the three types. The other dhātus are free from the one and the other.
H: The [first] five cognition-components are indeed distracted and discursive. The last three [components] are of three types. The rest are separate from both.
tau prajñāmānasī vyagrā smṛtiḥ sarvaiva mānasī||33||
They are free from vikalpa to the extent that they are free from nirūpaṇāvikalpa and from anusmaraṇavikalpa. They are dispersed mental prajñā, mental memory whatever it may be.
H: Those [sensory cognitions] are non-conceptual in terms of distinguishing and recollecting. Those [latter] two are: the understanding which, is mental and dispersed, and every single, mental, memory.
sapta sālambanāścittadhātavaḥ ardhaṁ ca dharmataḥ|
navānupāttā te cāṣṭau śabdaśca anye nava dvidhā||34||
The seven dhātus which are mind have an object. And also one part of the dharmadhātu. Nine are non-appropriated. The eight that have been mentioned, and sound. The other nine are of two types.
H: Seven have cognitive objects: [namely] the [seven] thought-components. And [so does] half of the dharma [component]. Nine are unappropriated: the above eight and also sound. The other nine are of two sorts.
spraṣṭavyaṁ dvividhaṁ śeṣā rūpiṇo nava bhautikāḥ|
dharmadhātvekadeśaśca saṁcitā daśa rūpiṇaḥ||35||
The tangible is of two types. The other nine material dhātus are soley secondary matter. As is the part of the dharmadhātu which is material. The ten material dhātus are agglomerations.
H: The tangible is of two sorts. The remaining nine material [components] are derivative [only], and [so is] one part of the dharma-component. The ten material [components] are composite.
chinatti chidyate caiva bāhyaṁ dhātu catuṣṭayam|
dahyate tulayatyevaṁ vivādo dagdhṛtulyayoḥ||36||
Four external dhātus cut, are cut; The same are burned and weighed. There is no agreement with respect to that which is burned and weighed.
H: The same set of four external components cuts and is cut. So [also] it is burned and it weighs. There is disagreement concerning the agent of burning and the object of weighing.
vipākajaupacayikāḥ pañcādhyātmaṁ vipākajaḥ|
na śabdaḥ apratighā aṣṭau naiḥṣyandika vipākajāḥ||37||
Five internal dhātus are of fruition and accumulation. Sound is not of retribution. The eight dhātus free from resistance are of outflowing and also of fruition.
H: On the internal side, five [components] are fruitional and additive. Sound is not fruitional. The eight [components] without impact are continuing and fruitional.
tridhā'nye dravyavānekaḥ kṣaṇikāḥ paścimāstrayaḥ|
cakṣurvijñānadhātvoḥ syāt pṛthak lābhaḥ sahāpi ca||38||
The others are of three types. A single dhātu “is real”. The last three dhātus are momentary. He can obtain the organ of sight and the visual consciousness either separately or together.
H: The others are of [all] three sorts. One [component] is substantial. The last three [components] are instantaneous. Acquiring the components of the eye and the visual cognition may occur separately and also together.
dvādaśādhyātmikāḥ hitvā rūpādīn dharmasaṁjñakaḥ|
sabhāgaḥ tatsabhāgāśca śeṣāḥ yo na svakarmakṛt||39||
Twelve are personal. With the exception of visible matter, etc. The dhātu called dharmas is sabhāga. The other dhātus are also tatsabhāga. When they do not do their proper work.
H: There are twelve internal [components]: aside from those [six fields] beginning with form. That [component] designated “dharma” is homogeneous. The rest are [that] and [also] quasihomogeneous, which [latter] does not perform its own action.
daśa bhāvanayā heyāḥ pañca ca antyāstrayastridhā|
na dṛṣṭiheyamakliṣṭaṁ na rūpaṁ nāpyaṣaṣṭhajam||40||
Ten and five are abandoned through Meditation. The last three are of three types. Neither the “undefiled”, nor matter, are abandoned by Seeing the Truths. Nor that which has arisen from the non-sixth.
H: Ten [material components] are to be removed by meditation, and so are five [others]. The last three are of [all] three sorts. The undefiled cannot be removed by insight, nor can [material] form, nor can anything not born from the “sixth” [sense organ, mind, be removed by insight].
cakṣuśca dharmadhātośca pradeśau dṛṣṭiḥ aṣṭadhā|
pañcavijñānasahajā dhīrna dṛṣṭiratīraṇāt||41||
The organ of sight and part of the dharmadhātu are view. Eight parts. The prajñā which arises with the five sense consciousnesses, is not “view” because it is not judgment after deliberation.
H: The eye and also a portion of the dharma-component are view: it [view] is of eight sorts. The thinking which accompanies the five [sensory] cognitions is not view, since it is without judgement.
cakṣuḥ paśyati rūpāṇi sabhāgaṁ na tadāśritam|
vijñānaṁ dṛśyate rūpaṁ na kilāntaritaṁ yataḥ||42||
It is the organ of sight which sees visible matter. When it is sabhāga. It is not the consciousness of which this organ is the point of support. For obscured visible matter is not seen. Such is the opinion of the Vaibhāṣikas.
H: The eye sees forms, [that is] the homogeneous [eye does]. Not [so] the cognition based on that: since a concealed form is not seen, so they say.
ubhābhyāmapi cakṣurbhyāṁ paśyati vyaktadarśanāt|
Visible matter is seen by the two eyes also, as the clarity of sight demonstrates. The organ of sight, the organ of hearing, and the mental organ know their object without attaining it. For the other three organs, the opposite.
H: One sees also with both eyes, because of seeing distinctly [thereby]. Eye, ear, and mind have fields not directly touched. The [other] three are otherwise.
caramasyāśrayo'tītaḥ pañcānāṁ sahajaśca taiḥ||44||
The three organs of which the organ of smell is the first, grasp an object of their dimension. Relative to consciousness, the point of support of the sixth consciousness is past. The point of support of the first five is also simultaneous.
H: There is thought to be apprehension of commensurate fields by those three [organs] beginning with the nose. The basis of the last [cognition] is past [only]. That of the [first] five [cognitions] is also simultaneous with them.
ato'sādhāraṇatvāddhi vijñānaṁ tairnirucyate||45||
The point of support of a consciousness is its organ, for consciousness changes according to the modality of the organ. For this reason, and also because it is “its own”, it is the organ which gives its name to the consciousness.
H: The organs of the eye and so on are the bases [of cognition,] because it changes as they change. For this reason, and also because they are not held in common, the cognition is defined by those [organs].
na kāyasyādharaṁ cakṣuḥ ūrdhvaṁ rūpaṁ na cakṣuṣaḥ|
vijñānaṁ ca asya rūpaṁ tu kāyasyobhe ca sarvataḥ||46||
The organ of sight is not inferior to the body. Visible matter is not higher than the organ. Nor consciousness. Visible matter, in relation to consciousness, and visible matter as well as consciousness, through relation to the body, is of all types.
H: There is no [seeing with an] eye lower than the body. The form is not lower than the eye. Likewise the cognition. But of this [cognition] the form, and of the body both [form and cognition] may be of all [three] types.
tathā śrotraṁ trayāṇāṁ tu sarvameva svabhūmikam|
kāyavijñānamadharasvabhūmi aniyataṁ manaḥ||47||
The same holds for the organ of hearing. Three organs belong to their own stage. The consciousness of touch is of its own stage or of a lower stage. There is no restriction with respect to the mental organ.
H: So [also] the [organ of the] ear. But for the three [organs of smell, taste, and touch] every single [item] belongs to the [being's] own level. The tactile cognition belongs to one's own or a lower level. The mind is non-restricted.
pañca bāhyā divijñeyāḥ nityā dharmā asaṁskṛtāḥ|
dharmārdhamindriyaṁ ye ca dvādaśādhyātmikāḥ smṛtāḥ||48||
Five external dhātus are discerned by two types of consciousness. Unconditioned things are eternal. The twelve internal dhātus and one part of the dharmadhātu are indriyas.
H: The five external [components] are cognizable by two [cognitions]. The unconditioned dharmas are permanent. Half of the dharma [component], and the twelve [components] which are considered internal, are faculties.
abhidharmakośabhāṣye dhātunirdeśo nāma prathamaṁ kośasthānaṁ samāptamiti|
ye dharmā hetuprabhavā hetusteṣāṁ tathāgato hyavadat|
teṣāṁ ca yo nirodha evaṁvādī mahāśramaṇaḥ||