Abhidharmakosha Vasubandhu Chapter 4
Abhidharmakosha chapter 4
Chapter 4: caturthaṁ kośasthānam
CHAPTER FOUR – KARMA
Abhidharmakosa caturthaṁ kośasthānam oṁ namo buddhāya
karmajaṁ lokavaicitryaṁ cetanā tatkṛtaṁ ca tat|
cetanā mānasaṁ karma tajjaṁ vākkāyakarmaṇī||1||
The variety of the world arises from action. It is volition and that which is produced through volition. Volition is mental action: it gives rise to two actions, bodily and vocal action.
R: Deeds cause the multitude of worlds. | they're movement of the mind and what it brings. | mental movement is a deed of thought; | what it causes, deeds of body and speech.
te tu vijñaptyavijñaptī kāyavijñaptiriṣyate|
saṁsthānaṁ na gatiryasmātsaṁskṛtaṁ kṣaṇikaṁ vyayāt||2||
These two actions are informative and non-informative. Bodily vijñapti is shape. It is not movement because all conditioned things are momentary, since they perish: on the other hand, nothing does not perish without a cause and the creative cause would be at the same time destructive.
R: These are either communicating or not. | body communicating held to be shape.
na kasyacidahetoḥ syāt hetuḥ syācca vināśakaḥ|
dvigrāhyaṁ syāt na cāṇau tat vāgvijñaptistu vāgdhvaniḥ||3||
It would be perceived by two organs. Shape does not exist in an atom. Vocal vijñapti is vocal sound.
Scripture says that rūpa is of three types and that there is a pure rūpa; there is increase of merit; and there is a course of action for him who is not concerned with himself, etc. From the first moment, the avijñapti of Kāmadhātu arises derived from the past primary elements.
svāni bhūtānyupādāya kāyavākkarma sāsravam|
anāsravaṁ yatra jātaḥ avijñaptiranupāttikā||5|
When impure, bodily and vocal action derive from the primary elements of the sphere to which they belong. When they are pure, they are from the primary elements of the sphere to which the person who has produced them belongs. The avijñapti is not integral to the organism; it is also an outflowing; it belongs solely to living beings.
naiḥṣyandikī ca sattvākhyā niṣyandopāttabhūtajā|
Not of absorption, it derives from the primary elements which are an outflowing, which are integral to the organism, which are differentiated. 6. Arisen from absorption, it derives from nondifferentiated primary elements, not integral to the organism, and increase.
nāvyākṛtāstyavijñaptiḥ tridhā'nvyat aśubhaṁ punaḥ|
kāme rūpe'pyavijñaptiḥ vijñaptiḥ savicārayoḥ||7||
The avijñapti is never neutral. Other actions are of three types. Bad action exists in Kāmadhātu. Avijñapti also exists in Rūpadhātu. Vijñapti exists in the two spheres where there is vicāra.
kāme'pi nivṛtā nāsti samutthānamasadyataḥ|
paramārthaśubho mokṣaḥ svato mūlahyrapatrapāḥ||8||
The vijñapti termed nivṛta is also missing in Kāmadhātu. Because the cause which produces it is absent. Deliverance is absolute good. The roots, respect and fear, are good in and of themselves.
R: ...Freedom | is the ultimate virtue. The roots as well as | shame and a conscience are so in themselves.
saṁprayogeṇa tadyuktāḥ samutthā nāt kriyādayaḥ|
viparyayeṇākuśalaṁ paramāvyākṛte dhruve||9||
That which is associated [with the roots, etc.], is good through association. Actions, etc. are good by reason of their original cause. Evil is the contrary. Two entities are neutral in the absolute sense.
R: Those that are linked with them, by a mental link; | actions and the like, by motivation. | their opposites, non-virtue. The ultimate | in the ethically neutral, those described.
samutthānaṁ dvidhā hetutatkṣaṇotthānasaṁjñitam|
pravartakaṁ tayorādyaṁ dvitīyamanuvartakam||10||
That which gives rise (samutthāna) is of two types, which are known as hetusamutthāna and tatkṣaṇasamutthāna. Which are respectively first setter into motion and second mover.
R: Two types of motivation: causal and | the one we give the name of ―at the time.‖ | the first of the two acts to set you off; | the second's function is to make you continue.
pravartakaṁ dṛṣṭiheyaṁ vijñānam ubhayaṁ punaḥ|
mānasaṁ bhāvanāheyaṁ pañcakaṁ tvanuvartakam||11||
The consciousness to be abandoned through Seeing is solely agent. The manas susceptible of being abandoned through Meditation is twofold. The five are solely mover.
R: The consciousness eliminated by seeing | is the one which starts. The thought for both | eliminated by habituation. | the five function in continuation.
pravartake śubhādau hi syāttridhā'pyanuvartakam|
tulyaṁ muneḥ śubhaṁ yāvat nobhayaṁ tu vipākajam||12||
From a good agent, etc., a mover of three types. With regard to the Muni, mover of the same type. Or good. That which arises from retribution is neither of the two.
R: From starting types of virtue and the rest, | come three types of continuation as well. | for the able the same, or that one virtue. | those that come from ripening are neither.
avijñaptistridhā jñeyā saṁvarāsaṁvaretarā|
saṁvaraḥ prātimokṣākhyo dhyānajo'nāsravastathā||13||
Avijñapti is threefold, discipline (saṁvara), un-discipline (asaṁvara), and different from either discipline or un-discipline. Prātimokṣa discipline, pure discipline, discipline arising from dhyāna.
aṣṭadhā prātimokṣākhyaḥ dravyatastu caturvidhaḥ|
liṅgato nāmasaṁcārāt pṛthak te cāvirodhinaḥ||14||
The Prātimokṣa is of eight types. In substance however, the Prātimokṣa is of four types. The name changes with the gender. [The disciplines exist] separately. But they do not contradict one another.
pañcāṣṭadaśasarvebhyo varjyebhyo viratigrahāt|
By undertaking the renouncing of the five things to avoid, of the eight, the ten, of all the things to avoid, one obtains the quality of Upāsaka, Upavāsastha, Śrāmaṇera, and Bhikṣu.
śīlaṁ sucaritaṁ karma saṁvaraścocyate punaḥ|
ādye vijñaptyavijñapto prātimokṣakriyāpathaḥ||16||
Morality, good conduct, action and discipline. The Prātimokṣa is the first vijñapti and the first avijñapti; these are courses of action (karmapatha).
prātimokṣānvitā aṣṭau dhyānajena tadanvitaḥ|
anāsraveṇāryasattvāḥ antyau cittānuvartinau||17||
Eight persons possess the Prātimokṣa. He who possesses dhyāna possesses the discipline which arises from dhyāna. The Āryans possess pure discipline. The last two disciplines are concomitants of the mind.
anāgamye prahāṇākhyau tāvānantaryamārgajau|
saṁprajñānasmṛtī dve tu manaindriyasaṁvarau||18||
Arising in the ānantaryamārgas, in anāgamya, they are called “abandoning”. Discipline of the mind and discipline of the organs are, each of them, two things: attentive consciousness and mindfulness.
prātimokṣasthito nityamatyāgā dvartamānayā|
avijñaptyā'nvitaḥ pūrvāt kṣaṇādūrdhvamatītayā||19||
He who is in Prātimokṣa always possesses avijñapti of the present moment, as long as he does not reject the avijñapti. After the first moment, he also possesses avijñapti.
tathaivāsaṁvarastho'pi dhyānasaṁvaravān sadā|
atītājātayā āryastu prathame nābhyatītayā||20||
So too is he who dwells in undiscipline. He who possesses discipline arisen from dhyāna always possesses past and future avijñapti. The Āryan, at the first moment, does not possess past avijñapti.
samāhītāryamārgasthau tau yuktau vartamānayā|
madhyasthasyāsti cedādau madhyayā ūrdhvaṁ dvikālayā||21||
The person who is in a state of absorption, the person who is placed in the Way, possesses avijñapti of the present moment. The intermediary, at the first moment, possesses, medially, avijñapti, when the avijñapti is produced. Afterwards, [he possesses avijñapti] of the present and the past.
asaṁvarasthaḥ śubhayā'śubhayā saṁvare sthitaḥ|
avijñaptyānvito yāvat prasādakleśavegavān||22||
As long as he is endowed with faith or with very active defilements, the undisciplined person possesses good avijñapti, and the disciplined person possesses bad avijñapti.
vijñaptyā tu punaḥ sarve kurvanto madhyayānvitāḥ|
atītayā kṣaṇādūrdhvamātyāgāt nāstyajātayā||23||
Those who have created one vijñapti possess it always, in the present. From the second moment onward, they possess vijñapti of the past, until the moment when they give it up. One cannot possess future vijñapti.
nivṛtānivṛtābhyāṁ ca nātītābhyāṁ samanvitaḥ|
asaṁvaro duścaritaṁ dauḥśīlyaṁ karma tatpathaḥ||24||
One does not possess past vijñapti of the nivṛta and anivṛta classes. Undiscipline, bad conduct, immorality, action, course of action.
vijñaptyaivānvitaḥ kurvanmadhyastho mṛducetanaḥ|
The intermediary, acting with a weak volition, possesses a single vijñapti. The Āryan possesses a single avijñapti when he has not produced, or has abandoned, the vijñapti.
dhyānajo dhyānabhūmyaiva labhyate anāsravastayā|
āryayā prātimokṣākhyaḥ paravijñapanādibhiḥ||26||
The discipline that arises from dhyāna is acquired by one thought of the sphere of the dhyāna. Pure discipline, by the same mind, when it is Āryan. That which is called Prātimokṣa, through paravijñapana, etc.
yāvajjīvaṁ samādānamahorātraṁ ca saṁvṛteḥ|
nāsaṁvaro'styahorātraṁ na kilaivaṁ pragṛhyate||27||
One undertakes the discipline for a lifetime or for a day and a night. There is undiscipline for a day and a night. For, says the School, one does not undertake it thus.
kālyaṁ grāhyo'nyato nīcaiḥ sthitenoktānuvāditā|
upavāsaḥ samagrāṅgo nirbhūṣeṇāniśākṣayāt||28||
One should undertake the fast (upavāsa) in a humble attitude, speaking after, with ornaments removed, until the morrow, complete, the morning, from another.
śīlāṅgānyapramādāṅgaṁ vratāṅgāni yathākramam|
catvāryekaṁ tathā trīṇi smṛtināśo madaśca taiḥ||29||
Part of morality (sīla), part of vigilance (apramāda), parts of ascetic vows (vrata), have respectively four, one, three parts. In order to avoid weakness of mindfulness and arrogance.
anyasyāpyupavāso'sti śaraṇaṁ tvagatasya na|
upāsakatvopagamātsaṁvṛt uktistu bhikṣuvat||30||
Others can possess the fast, but not without taking the Refuges. The discipline is produced through the fact that he accepts the qualities of an Upāsaka. One explains them to him, as is also the case for a Bhikṣu.
sarve cet saṁvṛtā ekadeśakāryādayaḥ katham|
tatpalanāt kila proktāḥ mṛdvāditvaṁ yathā manaḥ||31||
If all Upāsakas possess the discipline of the Upāsaka, how can an Upāsaka be an ekadeśakārin, etc.? These terms, say the School, refer to the fact of observing the rules. All the disciplines are weak, etc., according to the mind.
nirvāṇaṁ ceti śaraṇaṁ yo yāti śaraṇatrayam||32||
He who takes the Refuges takes refuge in the aśaikṣa dharmas which form the Buddha, in the two types of dharmas which form the Saṁgha, and in Nirvāna.
yathābhyupagamaṁ lābhaḥ saṁvarasya na saṁtate||33||
Sexual misconduct, because it is much censured, because one easily abstains from it, because the Āryans have obtained abstention from it. They have acquired it as they have accepted the discipline; they have not accepted it with regard to some persons.
Because, having violated any other rule he would lie. One renounces strong liquor, which is a transgression of disobedience, In order that the other rules may be kept.
sarvobhayebhyaḥ kāmāpto vartamānebhya āpyate|
maulebhyaḥ sarvakālebhyo dhyānānāsrava saṁvarau||35||
One acquires the discipline of Kāmadhātu relative to all actions, relative to the two types of beings and to the two types of actions, relative to things of the present. One acquires the discipline of dhyāna and the pure discipline relative to actions themselves and to things of the three time periods.
saṁvaraḥ sarvasattvebhyo vibhāṣā tvaṅgakāraṇaiḥ|
asaṁvarastu sarvebhyaḥ sarvāṅgebhyo na kāraṇaiḥ||36||
One acquires discipline with regard to all beings; one must distinguish regarding the parts and the causes. Undiscipline, with regard to all, relative to all parts, and not by reason of all causes.
asaṁvarasya kriyayā lābho'bhyupagamena vā|
One acquires undiscipline through action or through accepting it. One acquires the other avijñaptis by reason of the field, of undertaking, of an action seriously undertaken.
The Prātimokṣa discipline is lost through abjuration, through death, through hermaphroditism, through the cutting off of the roots, and by the night coming to an end.
patanīyena cetyeke saddharmāntadhito'pare|
dhanarṇavattu kāśmīrairāpannasyeṣyate dvayam||39||
Some say through a patanīya. Through the disappearance of the Good Law, say some other masters. The Kaśmīreans believe that the transgressor possesses morality and immorality, in the manner that a person can have riches and debts.
bhūmisaṁcārahānibhyāṁ dhyānāptaṁ tyajyate śubham|
tathārūpyāptamāryaṁ tu phalāptyuttaptihānibhiḥ||40||
The “good” of the sphere of dhyāna is lost through a change of state and through falling. The same for the good of Ārūpyadhātu. Pure good is lost through the obtaining of a result, through perfection of the faculties, or through falling away.
Undiscipline is lost through the acquisition of discipline, through death, or through hermaphroditism. Intermediate avijñapti is lost through the cutting off of the force, the undertaking, the action, the object, the life, and the roots.
kāmāptaṁ kuśalārūpaṁ mūlacchedordhvajanmataḥ|
pratipakṣodayāt kliṣṭamarūpaṁ tu vihīyate||42||
Good non-material action, of the sphere of Kāmadhātu, is lost through the cutting off of the roots, and through arising in a superior sphere. That which is defiled and non-material is lost through the arising of its opposite.
nṛṇāmasaṁvaro hitvā śaṇḍha paṇḍadvidhākṛtīn|
kurūṁśca saṁvaro'pyevaṁ devānāṁ ca nṛṇāṁ trayaḥ||43||
Humans – with the exception of the two categories of eunuchs, hermaphrodites, and the Kurus – are susceptible of undiscipline; the same for the discipline which pertains also to the gods. The three disciplines exist among humans.
kāmarūpajadevānāṁ dhyānajaḥ anāsravaḥ punaḥ|
Discipline of dhyāna exists among the gods of Kāmadhātu and Rūpadhātu. So too the pure discipline, with the exception of the gods of the intermediate dhyāna and the Asaṁjñisattvas; and also in Ārūpyadhātu.
puṇyāpuṇyamaniñjaṁ ca sukhevedyādi ca trayam||45||
Good action is salutary, bad action is pernicious, and action differing from good and bad is different from the salutary and the pernicious. There are meritorious actions, demeritorious actions, and non-agitated actions; and three actions of which the action of agreeable feeling is the first.
R: Deeds for the pleasant, unpleasant, and other-- | virtuous, non-virtuous, and other. | merit, nonmerit, those which are unshifting; | the three including those which lead to pleasure.
kāmadhātau śubhaṁ karma puṇyamāneñjamūrdhvajam|
tadbhūmiṣu yataḥ karmavipākaṁ prati neñjati||46||
Meritorious action is a good action in Kāmadhātu; non-agitated action is a good action above there. Because, with regard to that which concerns its retribution, action of the domain of the higher stages does not vary.
R: Merit, virtuous deeds of the realm of desire. | the ones that come from the above, unshifting. | they're unshifting for the reason that | the deeds involved ripen at their levels.
sukhavedyaṁ śubhaṁ dhyānādātṛtīyāt ataḥ param|
aduḥkhāsukhavedyaṁ tu duḥkhavedyamihāśubham||47||
Good action, up to the Third Dhyāna, is of agreeable feeling. Above, it is of neither agreeable nor disagreeable sensation. Bad action, here below, is of disagreeable sensation.
R: Virtue up to the third concentration, the ones that | bring a pleasant experience. From here on up, | the ones which bring on neither pain nor pleasure. | non-virtue here which bring a painful experience.
adho'pi madhyamastyeke dhyānāntaravipākataḥ|
apūrvācaramaḥ pākastrayāṇāṁ ceṣyate yataḥ||48||
According to some, intermediary action also exists below. Since there is no retribution with regard to dhyānāntara. Because it is admitted that the retribution of the three types of action takes place at the one and same time.
R: Some make the claim that the ones below as well | have the one between, for the reason that | deeds ripen in the advanced concentration, | three accepted to ripen without progression.
saṁmukhībhāvataśceti pañcadhā vedanīyatā||49||
There are five ways of being vedanīya, “sensed”, “experienced”: of itself, through sensation, as an object, by being retributed, and by the fact of its presence.
R: Five are the different types of experience: | that by very nature, a mental link, | an object of focus, that by ripening, | that which makes its appearance in a manner direct.
niyatāniyataṁ tacca niyataṁ trividhaṁ punaḥ|
dṛṣṭadharmādivedyatvāt pañcadhā karma kecana||50||
This action is determinate or indeterminate. Determinate action is of three types, to be experienced in the present life, etc. According to one opinion, action is of five types.
R: These are either definite or not; | the definite's three types because of those | experienced as something seen and such. | some claim that the kinds of deeds are five,
catuṣkoṭikamityanye nikāyākṣepaṇaṁ tribhiḥ|
sarvatra caturākṣepaḥ śubhasya narake tridhā||51||
Others distinguish four alternatives. Three types of actions project existence. Fourfold production throughout. Good action, in the hells, is solely of three types.
R: Others that the combinations are four. | three of them act to project a discrete being. | every one has four projections each; | in the hells, three of virtuous.
yadviraktaḥ sthiro bālastatra notpadyavedyakṛt|
nānyavedyakṛdapyāryaḥ kāme'gre vā'sthiro'pi na||52||
When he is firm, the fool does not produce any action to be experienced, at the stage from whence he is detached, in his next existence. The Ārya no longer produces any action to be experienced in a later existence. The Āryan, not firm, when he is detached from Kāmadhātu or from Bhavāgra, the same.
R: A stable child does none to experience born | at that for which he's overcome desire. | neither realized, in others even; | neither the unstable, desire and peak.
dṛṣṭadharmaphalaṁ tacca nikāyo hyeka eva saḥ||53||
The intermediate being, in Kāmadhātu, produces twenty-two types of actions. These actions bear their results in the present existence. For all these states form, together with the intermediate existence, only a single existence.
R: Twenty-two different projections had with | inbetween beings in the realm of desire. | one is the type with results that you see; | it is but a single discrete type.
tīvrakleśaprasādena sātatyena ca yatkṛtam|
guṇakṣetre ca niyataṁ tatpitrorghātakaṁ ca yat||54||
Action accomplished through intense defilement or through intense faith, with regard to the field of qualities, continually, and the murdering of a father and a mother, are determinate.
R: Those are definite which involve fierce | mental affliction or faith, an object of special | qualities, anything done on a | continual basis, killing father or mother.
dṛṣṭadharmaphalaṁ karma kṣetrāśayaviśeṣataḥ|
tadbhūmyatyantavairāgyāt vipāke niyataṁ hi yat||55||
Action bears result in the present existence by reason of certain characteristics of the field and the intention. And also, when one is definitely detached with regard to the stage in which the action appears. Action “determinate with regard to retribution”.
R: Deeds with results which are something seen, | due to features of the object or thought; | anything which was something certain to ripen, | where completely free of the level's desire.
teṣu kārāpakārāsya phalaṁ sadyo'nubhūyate||56||
Persons who have left either nirodha, or maitri, or araṇā, or Seeing the Truths, or the result of Arhat: all good and all bad with regard to them is immediately retributed.
R: Help or harm to any of the following | leads to quick experience of a result: | anyone coming out of cessation or love, | no affliction, seeing, result of destroying.
kuśalasyāvitarkasya karmaṇo vedanā matā|
vipākaścaitasikyeva kāyikyevāśubhasya tu||57||
Sensation, the result of good action free from vitarka, is exclusively mental. Sensation, which is the result of a bad action, is exclusively physical
cittakṣepo manaścitte sa ca karmavipākajaḥ|
Mental-trouble is produced in the mental consciousness. It arises from the retribution of action. Through fear, the attack of demons, irritation of the elements, and fear. Among beings in Kāmadhātu, with the exception of the Kurus.
kṛṣṇaśuklādibhedena punaḥ karma caturvidham||59||
What is termed crookedness, corruption, stains, is action arisen from hypocrisy, hatred, and attachment. Action is of four types, white, black, etc.
aśubhaṁ rūpakāmāptaṁ śubhaṁ caiva yathākramam|
kṛṣṇaśuklobhayaṁ karma tatkṣayāya nirāsravam||60||
Bad actions, good action of Rūpa, good actions of Kāma, are, respectively, black, white, blackwhite; action which destroys the other actions is pure action.
R: Non-virtue as well as virtue itself taken | in by the form and desire represent | respectively deeds which are black, white, and both. | the unstained is what brings it to an end.
dharmakṣāntiṣu vairāgye cānantaryapathāṣṭake|
yā cetanā dvādaśadhā karma kṛṣṇakṣayāya tat||61||
A volition may be of twelve types, namely the volition of the dharmakṣāntis and of the first eight paths of abandoning in the detachment of Kāmadhātu: such is the action which destroys black action.
R: Twelve types of mental movement had with | phenomena, mastery, and eight of the | uninterrupted path free of desire | are deeds that act to bring the black to an end.
navame cetanā yā sā kṛṣṇaśuklakṣayāya ca|
The volition of the ninth is the action which destroys black-white action. Volition which arises in the last paths of abandoning of the detachment of the dhyānas destroys good action.
R: That which is the mental movement in the | ninth acts to end the white and black. | white by the final uninterrupted arising, | free of desire for the concentration.
anye narakavedyānyakāmavedyaṁ dvayaṁ viduḥ|
dṛgdheyaṁ kṛṣṇamanye anyatkṛṣṇaśuklaṁ tu kāmajam||63||
According to others, the first two actions are retributed in hell and retributed moreover in Kāmadhātu. According to others, arisen in Kāma, actions are black when they can be abandoned through Seeing the Truths; they are black-white in the contrary case.
R: According to others, understood as those | for a hell experience, the two for other desire. | others, what seeing eliminates is black; | white and black, others that come from desire.
aśaikṣaṁ kāyavākkarma manaścaiva yathākramam|
maunatrayam tridhā śaucaṁ sarva sucaritatrayam||64||
Aśaikṣa, that is, an Arhat’s, actions of the body, voice and mind, are, in this order, the three silences. The threefold good practice in its entirety is the threefold purification.
aśubhaṁ kāyakarmādi mataṁ duścarita trayam|
akarmāpi tvabhidhyādimanoduścaritaṁ tridhā||65||
The bad actions of the body, speech and mind are regarded as being the three bad practices. Even though greed, wickedness, anger and false views are not actions, they constitute a threefold bad practice of the mind.
daśa karmapathā uktā yathāyogaṁ śubhāśubhāḥ||66||
Good practice is the opposite. By taking, among these practices, the most evident, one defines the ten courses of action, good and bad respectively.
R: A very gross abbreviation of them | all was stated as the ten paths of | action, whether virtuous or not.
aśubhāḥ ṣaḍavijñaptiḥ dvidhaikaḥ te'pi kurvataḥ|
dvividhāḥ sapta kuśalāḥ avijñaptiḥ samādhijāḥ||67||
Six bad courses of action can be exclusively avijñapti. One bad course of action is always of two types. Six, when one carries them out himself, are of two types also. Seven good courses of action are of two types. They are only avijñapti when they have arisen from absorption.
sāmantakāstu vijñaptiḥ avijñaptirbhavenna vā|
viparyayeṇa pṛṣṭhāni prayogastu trimūlajaḥ||68||
The sāmantakas are vijñapti. They may or may not be avijñapti. The opposite concerning consecutive action. Preparatory action arises from three roots.
R: The undertakings come from the root three.
kuśalāḥ saprayogāntā alobhadveṣamohajāḥ||69||
Greed and the other two mental courses arise from the three roots because they appear subsequent to these roots. Good actions, with their preparatory and consecutive actions, arise from non-desire, non-hatred, and non-ignorance.
R: Because they occur just subsequent to them, | coveting and the rest come from these three. | the virtues, with undertaking and conclusion, | from no desire, dislike, ignorance.
vadhavyāpādapāruṣyaniṣṭhā dveṣeṇa lobhataḥ|
Killing, wickedness, and injurious words are achieved through hate. Adultery, greed, and stealing are achieved through desire.
R: Taking life, malice, and harsh speech are | brought to their completion by dislike. | sexual misconduct, coveting, and | stealing are brought to completion by desire.
mithyādṛṣṭestu mohena śeṣāṇāṁ tribhiriṣyate|
sattvabhogāvadhiṣṭhānaṁ nāmarūpaṁ ca nāma ca||71||
False views, through ignorance. The others, by the three. Object: living beings, objects of enjoyment, nāmarūpa, and nāman.
R: Mistaken views by ignorance of things; | the rest accepted as completed by three. | the objects consist of living beings, enjoyments. | names and forms, and then of names as well.
samaṁ prāk ca mṛtasyāsti na maulaḥ anyāśrayodayāt|
senādiṣvekakāryatvāt sarve karttṛvadanvitāḥ||72||
If one dies before or at the same time, there is no principal course of action. Because a new body has come into existence. As soldiers, etc., concur in the realization of the same effect, all are as guilty as the one who kills.
R: There is no actual stage for those who die | before or together, for another body's been born. | because their goal's the same in a war or whatever, | all possess it as much as the one who commits it.
prāṇātipātaḥ saṁcintya parasyābhrāntimāraṇam|
Murder is to kill another, consciously, without making an error. Stealing – taking what is not given – is to appropriate to oneself the goods of another through force or in secret.
R: Taking life is killing another being | purposely, and without a mistake. | stealing is to take possession of | another's wealth by means of force or stealth.
anyathāsaṁjñino vākyamarthābhijñe mṛṣāvacaḥ||74||
Illicit sexuality, fourfold, is intercourse with a women with whom one should not have intercourse. Lying is discourse held, with differing thoughts, with a person who understands the meaning.
R: Sexual misconduct, of four types, | engaging in improper kinds of sex. | lying's when the meanings of one's words | are understood, a wrong impression given.
cakṣuḥ śrotamanaścittairanubhūtaṁ tribhiśca yat|
taddaṣṭaśrutavijñātaṁ mataṁ coktaṁ yathākramam||75||
What is perceived through the visual consciousness, through the auditory consciousness, through the mental consciousness, and through three consciousnesses, is called, in order, seen, heard, cognized, and known.
R: That experienced by consciousness | of eye, of ear, the thought, and by the three | represents respectively what's seen, | what's heard, what's known, and also what is sensed.
paiśunyaṁ kliṣṭacittasya vacanaṁ parabhedane|
pārūṣyamapriyaṁ sarva kliṣṭaṁ bhinna pralāpitā||76||
Malicious or slanderous speech is the discourse of a person with a defiled mind with a view to dividing. Injurious words are abusive discourse. All defiled discourse is inconsiderate speech.
R: Divisive speech, the words of a mentally | afflicted state meant to split up others. | harsh speech is that which is unpleasant; | meaningless, really every afflicted.
ato'nyat kliṣṭamityanye lapanāgītanāṭyavat|
kuśāstavacca abhidhyā tu parasvaviṣamaspṛhā||77||
According to others, inconsiderate speech is the defiled discourse which differs from the others. For example, boasting, singing, declamations; for example, bad commentaries. Greed is the desire to appropriate to oneself, by illegitimate means, the goods of another.
R: Others, every other afflicted type like | flattery for gain, a song, a show. | like too wrong commentaries. Coveting | wrong desire for another's wealth.
vyāpādaḥ sattvavidveṣaḥ nāstidṛṣṭiḥ śubhāśubhe|
mithyādṛṣṭiḥ trayo hyatra panthānaḥ sapta karma ca ||78||
Wickedness is a hatred of living beings. False view is the opinion that there is neither good nor bad. Three are courses of action; seven are also action.
R: Harmful intent, hating a living being; | mistaken view, the idea that neither virtue | nor nonvirtue even exists. In them, | three are paths, seven deeds as well.
phalahetvapavādinyā sarvathā kramaśaḥ nṛṣu||79||
The view of negation cuts off the roots of good. The innate roots of the sphere of
Kāmadhātu. The false view which negates cause and result. Completely. Gradually. The cutting off takes place among humans.
R: Most basic lost by the view they don't exist; | taken in the desire, had from birth. | through the one denying cause and effect, | and through all. In stages, among humans,
chinatti strī pumān dṛṣṭicaritaḥ so'samanvayaḥ|
saṁdhiḥ kāṅkṣāstidṛṣṭibhyāṁ nehānantaryakāriṇaḥ||80||
Men and women cut off the roots. The rationalist. The cutting off is non-possession. Rearising through doubt, through insight into the existence of cause, etc. Not there, for one guilty of ānantarya.
R: Lost by those who are male or female, by the | intellectual. This is not to have it. | regained by suspecting, view there are; | not in this, when immediate's done.
yugapadyāvadaṣṭābhiraśubhaiḥ saha vartate|
cetanā daśabhiryāvacchubhaiḥ naikāṣṭapañcabhiḥ||81||
With regard to the painful realms of rebirth, volition can coexist at most with eight courses. Concerning good courses of action, volition can coexist with ten. Volition does not coexist with one, eight, or five courses of action.
bhinnapralāpapārūṣyavyāpādā narake dvidhā|
samanvāgamato'bhidhyāmithyādṛṣṭī kurau trayaḥ||82||
Inconsiderate words, injurious words, anger, of two types, exist in hell. Greed and false views, as potentiality. Three exist in Uttarakuru.
saptamaḥ svayamapyatra kāme'nyatra daśāśubhāḥ|
śubhāstrayastu sarvatra saṁmukhībhāvalābhataḥ||83||
The seventh course exists there in fact also. The ten bad courses of action exist elsewhere in Kāmadhātu. Three good courses of action exist everywhere, as potentiality and in fact.
ārūpyāsaṁjñisattveṣu lābhataḥ sapta śeṣite|
saṁmukhībhāvataścāpi hitvā sanarakān kurūn||84||
In the Ārūpyas, among the Unconscious Ones, seven courses of action exist as potentiality. For the rest, good courses of action also exist in fact, with the exception of beings in hell and the Uttarakurus.
All the other courses of action have retributive results, outflowing result, and predominating results. The result is threefold, because one makes him suffer, because one makes him die, and because one destroys his vigor.
lobhajaṁ kāyavākkarma mithyājīvaḥ pṛthak kṛtaḥ|
duḥśodhatvāt pariṣkāralobhotthaṁ cet na sūtrataḥ||86||
Bodily and vocal actions which arise from attachment are “wrong manner of livelihood”; it constitutes a separate category, because it is difficult to purify. If one says that it is solely action issued from attachment to the resources necessary for life, no; for this is in contradiction with the Sūtra.
prahāṇamārge samale saphalaṁ karma pañcabhiḥ|
caturbhiramale anyacca sāsravaṁ yacchubhāśubham||87||
Impure, in the path of abandoning, action embraces the five results. Pure, it includes four results.
anāsravaṁ punaḥ śeṣaṁ tribhiravyākṛtaṁ ca yat|
catvāri dve tathā trīṇi kuśalasya śubhādayaḥ||88||
The rest of pure action and neutral action, three results. The good, bad, neutral dharmas, constitute four, two, and three results of good action.
aśubhasya śubhādyā dve trīṇi catvāryanukramam|
avyākṛtasya dve trīṇi trīṇī caite śubhādayaḥ||89||
Good, bad, neutral dharmas, constitute, respectively two, three, and four results of bad action. The same dharmas – good, bad, neutral dharmas – make up two, three, and three results of neutral action.
sarve'tītasya catvāri madhyamasyāpyanāgatāḥ|
madhyamā dve ajātasya phalāni trīṇyanāgatāḥ||90||
Some dharmas of all types constitute four results of past action. Some future dharmas constitute four results of median action. There are two which are median dharmas. For action not yet arisen, there are three results made up of future dharmas.
svabhūmidharmāścatvāri trīṇi dve vā'nyabhūmikāḥ|
śaikṣasya trīṇi śaikṣādyāḥ aśaikṣasya tu karmaṇaḥ||91||
Some dharmas of the same stage constitute four results, whereas some dharmas of another stage constitute three or two results. Some Śaikṣa dharmas, etc. constitute three results of Śaikṣa action.
dharmāḥ śaikṣādikā ekaṁ phalaṁ trīṇyapi ca dvayam|
tābhyāmanyasya śaikṣādyā dve dve pañca phalāni ca||92||
Śaikṣa dharmas, etc., constitute one result, three results, and two results of Aśaikṣa action, etc. Some Śaikṣa dharmas, etc., constitute two results, two results, and five results of action differing from the two preceding.
trīṇi catvāri caikaṁ ca dṛggheyasya tadādayaḥ|
te dve catvāryatha trīṇi bhāvanāheyakarmaṇaḥ||93||
Dharmas susceptible of being abandoned through Seeing the Truths (dharśanaheya), susceptible of being abandoned through Meditation (bhāvanāheya), and not susceptible of being abandoned (apraheya), constitute three results, four [two is a typo] results, one result of action susceptible of being abandoned through Seeing the Truths. The same dharmas constitute two, four, and three results of action susceptible of being abandoned through Meditation.
apraheyasya te tvekaṁ dve catvāri yathākramam|
ayogavihitaṁ kliṣṭaṁ vidhibhraṣṭaṁ ca kecana||94||
The same dharmas constitute, respectively, one result, two results, and four results of action not susceptible of being abandoned. Improper action is defiled action; according to some, irregular action also.
ekaṁ janmākṣipatyekam anekaṁ paripūrakam|
nākṣepike samāpattī acitte prāptayo na ca||95||
One action projects one arising. Many actions complete an existence. Neither the two absorptions of unconsciousness nor the prāptis project (an existence).
R: A single one projects a single birth. | those that act to finish them off are many. | the balanced meditations that stop the mind | never act to project; neither do holds.
ānantaryāṇi karmāṇi tīvrakleśo'tha durgatiḥ|
Ānantarya actions; chronic defilements; and bad realms of rebirth, and Asaṁjñisattvas and Kurus, are the threefold obstacle.
triṣu dvipeṣvānantarya śaṇḍhā dīnāṁ tu neṣyate|
alpopakārālajjitvāt śeṣe gatiṣu pañcasu||97||
Mortal transgressions exist in the three continents. It is not admitted that eunuchs, etc., are capable of this transgression, because of the mediocrity of their kindness and respect. The other two obstacles exist in the five realms of rebirth.
akliṣṭāvyākṛto dharmaḥ saṁghastena samanvitaḥ||98||
Schism is, by its nature, disharmony; this is an undefiled-neutral dharma disassociated from the mind. It is the Saṁgha which possesses the schism.
R: Split community, a thing without a | link, its nature to be unreconciled. | not afflicted, neither specified, | something the community possesses.
tadavadya mṛṣāvādastena bhettā samanvitaḥ|
avīcau pacyate kalpam adhikairadhikā rujaḥ||99||
The transgression of schism is lying; it belongs to the schismatic. The schismatic falls into Avīci for a kalpa. Suffering grows by reason of supplementary transgression.
R: The disapproved that leads to it's a lie; | this the one who made the schism has. | it ripens to that without respite for an eon; | extra torment comes from extra ones.
bhikṣurdṛk carito vṛttī bhinatti anyatra bāliśān|
śāstṛmārgāntarakṣāntau bhinnaḥ na vivasatyasau||100||
A Bhikṣu who is an intellectual, who is virtuous, divides. Elsewhere. Fools. When it admits another Master, or another Path, it is divided. It does not exceed a day.
R: The schism's made by an intellectual, | full monk with his morals, elsewhere, children. | split at the acceptance of another | teacher, path. It does not remain.
cakrabhedaḥ sa ca mataḥ jambūdvīpe navādibhiḥ|
karmabhedastriṣu dvipeṣu aṣṭabhiradhikaiśca saḥ||101||
Is what we understand by breaking the Wheel. In Jamdudvīpa. By nine or more. Ritual schism in three continents. This schism supposes eight Bhikṣus or more.
R: Accepted as a breaking of the wheel. | on the dzambu continent, nine or such. | split activities, on three continents; | this one with involvement of eight or more.
ādāvante'rbudāt pūrvaṁ yugāccoparate munau|
sīmāyāṁ cāpyabaddhāyāṁ cakrabhedo na jāyate||102||
The breaking of the Wheel is impossible at the beginning; at the end; before the abscess; before a pair; when the Sage is extinguished; or when a parish has not been delimited.
R: A breaking of the wheel never occurs | at the beginning, the end, before the faults | or one of the pair, after the able passes, | until the residences set apart.
vyañjanāntarito'pi syāt mātā yacchoṇitobhdavaḥ||103||
Because they destroy or hurt a field of benefaction, or a field of qualities. Even if their gender changes, there is mortal transgression. The mother is the woman from whose blood one is born.
R: As objects of assistance, qualities, | since you reject and also eliminate them. | it is, even should the organ switch. | mother, the one whose menses he came from.
buddhe na tāḍanecchasya prahārānnordhvamarhati|
No, when he only had the intention of striking the Buddha. No, with regard to the person who became an Arhat after the blow. Detachment and its result are impossible for one who has made preparation for a mortal transgression.
R: Not with a mind to strike the Buddha, not with | an enemy destroyer after attack. | freed from desire, results, impossible | for one who's undertaken immediate.
saṁghabhede mṛṣāvādo mahāvadyatamo mataḥ|
bhavāgracetanā loke mahāphalatamā śubhe||105||
Lying with a view to schism is considered the gravest transgression. Among the good worldly dharmas, a volition for Bhavāgra bears the greatest result.
R: Lying to divide the community | accepted as most heinous of misdeeds.
dūṣaṇaṁ māturarhantyā niyatisthasya māraṇam|
bodhisattvasya śaikṣasya saṁghāyadvārahārikā||106||
To defile one’s mother, to defile an Arhantī; to kill a predestined Bodhisattva; to kill a Śaikṣa; and to steal the goods of the Saṁgha are transgressions similar to mortal transgressions; the fifth is the destruction of a Stūpa.
ānantaryasabhāgāni pañcamaṁ stūpabhedanam|
He absolutely impedes actions by the acquisition of Kṣānti, the quality of Anāgāmin, and the quality of Arhat.
bodhisattvaḥ kuto yāvat yato lakṣaṇa karmakṛt|
sugatiḥ kulajo'vyakṣaḥ pumān jātismaro'nivṛt||108||
Since when is one a Bodhisattva? When he begins to cultivate actions which produce the marks. Has good realms of rebirth; he is born into noble families; he possesses all the organs (avyakṣaḥ); he is a male; he remembers his past lives; and he does not desist (avivṛt [anivrt is a typo]).
jambūdvīpe pumāneva saṁmukhaṁ buddhacetanaḥ|
cintāmayaṁ kalpaśate śeṣa ākṣipate hi tat||109||
In Jambudvīpa, being a male; in the presence of the Buddhas, thinking of the Buddhas; having their origin in reflection; in the course of one hundred supplementary cosmic ages.
ekaikaṁ puṇyaśatajam asaṁkhyeyatrayāntyajāḥ|
vipaśyī dīpakṛdatnaśikhī śākyamuniḥ purā||110||
Each arises from one hundred merits. At the end of the three asaṁkhyeyas, Paśyin, Dīpa, and Ratnaśikhin. The first was Śākyamuni.
sarvatra sarva dadataḥ kārūṇyāddānapūraṇam|
aṅgacchede'pyakopāttu rāgiṇaḥ kṣāntiśīlayoḥ||111||
He completed Giving by giving everything to everyone, out of compassion. Morality and Patience were completed by his not being irritated, even when his limbs were broken, although he was still tied to desire.
tiṣyastotreṇa vīryasya dhīsamādhyoranantaram|
puṇyaṁ kriyā'tha tadvastu trayaṁ karmapathā yathā||112||
Energy, by praising Puṣya. Absorption and Intelligence, immediately before. Three are merit, action, occasions of the exercise of action, as in the case of deeds.
dīyate yena taddānaṁ pūjānugrahakāmyayā|
kāyavākkarma sotthānaṁ mahābhogyaphalaṁ ca tat||113||
Giving is what gives. Through the desire to render homage or service. It is bodily and vocal action and that which produces this action. It has for its results great joys.
R: Giving is when anyone acts to give, | out of a wish to honor or to aid. | deeds of body and speech with motive, linked; | its result, possession of great wealth.
svaparārthobhayārthāya nobhayārthāya dīyate|
Giving is beneficial to oneself, to others, to both or neither. Giving is excellent by the excellence of the giver, of the object given, and of the field.
R: Giving is that which benefits oneself, | the other, both, and neither one of them. | exceptional types of it from exceptional | givers, given thing, whom given; of these the
dātā viśiṣṭaḥ śraddhādyaiḥ satkṛtyādi dadāti ataḥ|
The giver is excellent through his faith, etc. He gives with respect, etc. From whence he obtains honors, superior joys, at the right time, sheltered from all loss.
R: Giver's exceptional through faith and the rest, | performs his giving with respect and the like. | as a result one gains the honor, a wealthy, | the timely and a freedom from hindrances.
varṇādisampadā vastu surūpatvaṁ yaśasvi vā|
priyatā sukumārartusukhasparśāṅgatā tataḥ||116||
The object perfect in color, etc. From whence beauty, glory, joy, great lightness of the body and contacts corresponding to the season.
R: Things given, excellent color and such. | from it an excellent form and reputation, | happiness and a very youthful complexion, | a body which in each time's pleasant to touch.
gatiduḥkhopakāritvaguṇaiḥ kṣetraṁ viśiṣyate|
agraṁ muktasya muktāya bodhisattvasya ca aṣṭamam||117||
The field is excellent through the realm of rebirth, suffering, benefactors, and qualities. The best is the gift from a delivered person to a delivered person. Or a gift from the Bodhisattva. Or the eighth.
R: Exceptional—those you give to—by the being, | suffering, aid, and by good qualities. | the highest someone freed by someone freed, | by a bodhisattva, or the eighth.
bodhisattvāya cāmeyā anāryebhyo'pi dakṣiṇā||118||
Even though they are not Āryans, offering made to one’s father and mother, to a sick person, to a preacher, to the Bodhisattva in his last birth are without measure.
R: Gifts made to a father or a mother, | to the sick, a spiritual teacher, or | a bodhisattva in his final life | cannot be measured, even not realized.
pṛṣṭhaṁ kṣetramadhiṣṭhānaṁ prayogaścetanāśayaḥ|
eṣāṁ mṛdvadhimātratvāt karmamṛdvadhimātratā||119||
Accordingly as these causes – consecutive, field, adhiṣṭhāna, preparation, volition, or intention – are small or large, action also is small or large.
R: Conclusion, one who's acted toward, commission; | undertaking, thinking, and intention: | the power of the deed itself's exactly | as little or great as these happen to be.
saṁcetanasamāptibhyāṁ niṣkraukṛtya vipakṣataḥ|
Action is termed “accumulated” by reason of its intentional character, by its completion, by the absence of regret and opposition, by its accompaniments, and by its retribution.
R: A deed is called ―collected‖ from its being | done intentionally, to its completion, | without regret, without a counteraction, | with attendants, ripening as well.
caitye tyāgānvayaṁ puṇyaṁ maitryādivadagṛṇhati|
The merit of a gift to a Caitya is merit produced by abandoning. Even though no one receives it, as is the case with compassion, etc. Even seeded into a bad field, the gift bears agreeable results, for there is never opposition between the result and the seed.
dauḥśīlyamaśubhaṁ rūpaṁ śīlaṁ tadviratiḥ dvidhā|
pratikṣiptācca buddhena viśuddhaṁ tu caturguṇam||122||
Immorality is bad rūpa. Morality is the renouncing of immorality. Of two types. It is, further, the renouncing of that which is prohibited by the Buddha. Pure, when it is endowed with the four qualities
samāhitaṁ tu kuśalaṁ bhāvanā cittavāsanāt||123||
Not troubled by immorality, by the causes of immorality; it takes as its support the opposite of immorality and “peace”. “Good absorption” or good in absorption, is bhāvana, meditation, soaking in, or impregnation. Because it perfumes, impregnates the mind.
svargāya śīlaṁ prādhānyāt visaṁyogāya bhāvanā|
caturṇāṁ brāhmapuṇyatvaṁ kalpaṁ svargeṣu modanāt||124||
Essentially, the precepts have heaven for their result; meditation has disconnection for its result. Four possess Brahmin merit, because they are happy in the heavens for a kalpa.
dharmadānaṁ yathābhūta sūtrādyakliṣṭadeśanā|
puṇyanirvāṇanirvedhabhāgīyaṁ kuśalaṁ tridhā||125||
The gift of the Dharmas is the correct teaching, not defiled, of the Sūtras etc. Good is threefold, merit, Nirvāṇa and penetration.
yogapravartitaṁ karma sasamutthāpakaṁ tridhā|
lipimudre sagaṇanaṁ kāvyaṁ saṁkhyā yathākramam||126||
An industrious action, of the body, of the voice or of the mind, with that which gives rise to it, are such things as writing, carving, eloquence, poetry, and calculation.
sāvadyā nivṛtā hīnāḥ kliṣṭāḥ dharmāḥ śubhāmalāḥ|
praṇītāḥ saṁskṛtaśubhā sevyāḥ mokṣastvanuttaraḥ||127||
Defiled dharmas are sāvadya, nivṛta, and hīna. Good and pure dharmas are praṇīta. Good conditioned dharmas are sevya. Deliverance is the highest.
abhidharmakośe karmanirddeśo nāma caturtha kośasthānamiti||