Buddhism Philosophy & Teachings

Three types of Wisdom

There are three types of wisdom-awareness, which can be translated as “ordinary knowledge, lesser transcendent awareness, and highest wisdom-awareness.” They are that which is born of receiving instructions through hearing, that which is born of reflection, and that which is born of meditation. There are ten branches of knowledge that are studied diligently in the Tibetan tradition so that disciples of the Buddha dharma can...

6 Paramitas : Joyful Perseverance

The fourth paramita, Joyful Perseverance, is also translated as “effort, exertion, and perseverance.” Practicing enthusiastic perseverance means being pleased to perform virtuous actions. Enthusiastic perseverance dispels all sufferings. Its practice is fundamental to avoid suffering of the lower realms, and through it we receive both worldly realizations and transcendent, supramundane realizations, those beyond the ordinary. Only enthusiastic perseverance can be called the main and best...

6 Paramitas : Patience

Patience is the third paramita or great perfection. We should understand the benefits of patience and shortcomings of impatience. Patience helps us to overcome anger that destroys good impressions in our mind and our merits. It also protects us from the anger of others, not letting the anger of others destroy clarity and light of our mind. Patience helps to create a good karma and...

6 Paramitas : Discipline

The second paramita is tshul-khrims, “ethics, morality, moral discipline, ethical conduct, rule, order,” Shila in Sanskrit. According to the Bodhisattva Vehicle, there are three categories of ethics (tshul-khrims-gsum): (1) to refrain from negative actions, (2) to accumulate what is positive and (3) to help others.

6 Paramitas : Generosity

The first Paramita is the practice of Generosity, to share what is helpful and good and to do it without selfishness. The practice of generosity, dana, can be traced to the early teachings of the nikayas, the agamas, and to the later teachings in the Prajnaparamita Sutras, as well as the Mahaprajnaparamita Shastra, which elaborates on this practice. Among the paramitas, generosity can be the...

Bodhisattva Path: 6 Paramitas

When we think about the Mahayana path to perfection and awakening of Bodhichitta we think about 6 Paramitas and 4 Immeasurables. Paramita means “transcendent perfection” in Sanskrit. And what we have to transcend here?! We should transcend the mental attachments to subject, object and actions. Six Paramitas describe the perfect qualities and practices of enlightened Bodhisattva who is practicing only to bring the utmost benefit...

Theravada and Mahasanghika

Hundred years after Buddha passed away, the first serious disagreements arouse between monks about the actual words of Buddha, and it was decided to hold the Second Buddhist Council. The main discussion objects in councils were Vinaya rules. Nowadays scholars believe the group known as Sthavira (Elders) wanted to tighten monastic discipline even more as it was given by Buddha himself and add more rules...

Four schools of Buddhist philosophy

To understand better Buddhist philosophy, Buddhist views and differences between different traditions and first of all between 3 yanas – Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana – we have to speak about their philosophy. Generally there could be differentiated 4 schools of philosophy- Vaibhāṣika, Sautrāntika, Yogacara (Cittamatra in Tibetan sources) and Madhyamaka. All of them are based upon Buddha Shakyamuni teachings, Sutras and Abhidharma, and may share...

 valid cognition in Buddhism

Theory of valid cognition is a discipline that analyses statements of others by means of logical deliberation. And the same is true regarding Buddha. We should analyse statements of Buddha by means of logical deliberation and theory of cognition if they are correct or not. If a teaching is correct it should withstand threefold criteria of truthfulness

Healing Mantras in Tibetan Buddhism

In my previous article about the basics of Tibetan medicine I already explained how it is closely related with Buddhism, right livelihood and religious principles. Often it may appear difficult to maintain all external conditions, like appropriate ingredients for a healing food or some others. But the good news is – as long we are alive in this life and body, we have our mind...