Ethics | Buddhism

Five hindrances

In Buddhist tradition, the 5 hindrances (pañca nīvaraṇāni) are identified as mental factors that hinder progress in meditation and in our daily lives. In Theravāda tradition, these factors are identified specifically as obstacles to the jhānas (stages of concentration) within meditation practice. Within the Mahāyāna tradition, the 5 hindrances are identified as obstacles to Śamatha (tranquillity) meditation. 5 hindrances are obstacles to mindfulness meditation.

In Buddhism, a mental Fetter, chain or bond (saṁyojana) shackles a sentient being to Saṁsāra, the cycle of lives with dukkha. By cutting through all Fetters, one attains Nibbāna (Nirvāṇa). Throughout the Pāḷi Canon, the word "Fetter" is used to describe an intra-psychic phenomenon that ties one to suffering. Sutta Piṭaka identifies 10 "Fetters of becoming". Defilements encompass all mental defilements including Fetters and hindrances

7 Factors of Awakening

In Buddhism, the 7 Factors of Awakening (Pāḷi: satta bojjhaṅga; Sanskrit: sapta bodhyanga) are: 1. Mindfulness (sati, Sanskrit: smṛti). 2. Investigation of the nature of reality. 3. Energy (viriya, Skt. vīrya) also determination, effort. 4. Joy or rapture (pīti, Skt. prīti) 5. Relaxation or tranquillity. 6. Concentration (samādhi) a calm, one-pointed state of mind, or clear awareness. 7. Equanimity. To accept reality as-it-is

The 5 faults and 8 antidotes are factors of Śamatha meditation identified in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. The 5 faults identify obstacles to meditation practice, and the 8 antidotes are applied to overcome the 5 faults. The system of the 5 faults and 8 antidotes is presented only in certain Mahāyāna texts. It has been commented upon by Tibetan commentators originally from the Yogācāra tradition.

The 4 Right Efforts (also known as, 4 Proper Exertions, 4 Right Exertions, 4 Great Efforts, 4 Right Endeavours or 4 Right Strivings) (Pāḷi: sammappadhāna; Skt.: samyak-pradhāna or samyakprahāṇa) are an integral part of the Buddhist path to Bodhi (awakening). The 4 Right Efforts encourage the relinquishment of harmful mental qualities and the nurturing of beneficial mental qualities. This elaboration is attributed to the Buddha

The 5 Powers or 5 Strengths (pañca-balāni) in Buddhism are faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. They are parallel facets of the 5 "spiritual faculties" (pañca indriya). Pañca (Sanskrit, Pāḷi) means "five." Bala (Sanskrit, Pāḷi) means "power," "strength," "force." The opposites of the 5 Powers are: 1. doubt, 2. laziness, 3. distraction, 4. forgetfulness, 5. confusion

Indriya (literally "belonging to or agreeable to Indra") is the Sanskrit and Pāḷi term for physical strength or ability in general, and for the senses more specifically. The term literally means "belonging to Indra," chief deity in the Rig Veda. In Buddhism, the term refers to multiple intra-psychic processes and is generally translated as "faculty" or, in specific contexts, as "spiritual faculty" or "controlling principle."

Iddhipāda (Pāḷi; Skt. ṛddhi-pāda) is a compound term composed of "power" or "potency" (iddhi; ṛddhi) and "base," "basis" or "constituent" (pāda). In Buddhism, the "power" referred to by this compound term is a group of spiritual powers. Thus, this compound term is usually translated along the lines of "base of power" or "base of spiritual power." Iddhipāda is sometimes translated as 4 Bases of Success.

Brahma Vihāras

The Brahmavihāras (sublime attitudes, lit. "Abodes of Brahma") are a series of 4 Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices made to cultivate them. The Brahma-Vihāras are: 1. loving-kindness or benevolence (maitrī/mettā) 2. compassion (karuṇā) 3. empathetic joy (muditā) 4. equanimity (upekṣā/upekkhā) According to the Metta Sutta, cultivation of the 4 Immeasurables has the power to cause the practitioner to be reborn into a "Brahma Realm"

Mahāyāna Precepts in Japan

The term Mahāyāna Precepts is usually used to differentiate lists of precepts or rules found in Mahāyāna texts from those found in the Vinaya, the traditional source upon which monastic discipline was based. A large number of Mahāyāna texts contain such lists, some detailed and others very simple. The history of Mahāyāna precepts in Japan was decisively influenced by the country’s geography: Japan is an